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JAHA Journal of the American Heart Association

for t in reversed(xrange(len(inputs))):

Go through our sequence in reverse as we back up the gradients.

dy = np.copy(ps[t])dy[targets[t]] -= 1 # backprop into y. see Helly Hansen Womens Aquapace 2 Water Shoe Jet Black Charcoal TDFLq0k
if confused here

First, get the gradient of the output, dy. As it turns out , the gradient of the cross-entropy loss is really as copying over the distribution and subtracting 1 from the correct class.

Remember backpropogation ? When we have a weighted sum, the gradient of the weights is just the corresponding value that it is being multiplied by, because the other terms drop out and that one weight is treated as a constant. So, computing the gradient of our Why matrix is super simple: just multiply the gradient of loss w.r.t. the output (dy) by the derivative of the output w.r.t. Why (which is just the hidden state at our given timestep), and we get the derivative of the loss w.r.t. Why.

dWhy += np.dot(dy, hs[t].T)

Like the other gradients (except dy, of course) we accumulate these gradients over all timesteps and apply them at the end.

dby += dy

The derivative of loss w.r.t. output (dy) multiplied by the derivative of our output w.r.t. the bias (which is 1) gives us the derivative of our output w.r.t. the bias. So far so good.

dh = np.dot(Why.T, dy) + dhnext # backprop into h

We compute dL/dh using the chain rule, and accumulate it over all timesteps (hence + dhnext ). We’ll need this for the next step.

dhraw = (1 — hs[t] * hs[t]) * dh # backprop through tanh nonlinearity

This computes the derivative of the np.tanh(np.dot(Wxh, xs[t]) + np.dot(Whh, hs[t-1]) + bh) line from earlier.

dbh += dhraw

Which is also our bh derivative, for the same reason that the by derivative was just dy.

dWxh += np.dot(dhraw, xs[t].T)dWhh += np.dot(dhraw, hs[t-1].T)

We accumulate our weight gradients.

dhnext = np.dot(Whh.T, dhraw)

And finally, store dh for this timestep so we can use it for the previous one.

for dparam in [dWxh, dWhh, dWhy, dbh, dby]:np.clip(dparam, -5, 5, out=dparam) # clip to mitigate exploding gradients

Last but not least, a little gradient clipping so we don’t get no exploding gradients.

return loss, dWxh, dWhh, dWhy, dbh, dby, hs[len(inputs)-1]

And then return all the gradients so we can apply an optimizer step. And that’s it for the backprop code; not too bad, right?

def sample(h, seed_ix, n):

This method is used for sampling a generated sequence from the network, starting with state h , first letter seed_ix , with length n .

University of Washington University of Washington
UW School of Medicine III Requirement

This page outlines the process for completing a Selective 1 (excluding Selective 1-MSRTP) or Selective 2 Independent Investigative Inquiry (III) project. Aisun Womens Fashion Buckled Strap Round Toe Booties Chunky High Heel Pull On Ankle Boots Shoes Apricot Wsvm9lKD
for instructions about completing the Medical Student Research Training Program type of Selective 1.

Step One:Determine a Project and Find a Faculty Sponsor

Selective 1 : these data gathering or hypothesis-driven inquiry projects take the form of a basic laboratory study, a survey, secondary analysis of an existing data set, a chart review, a qualitative study, or a prospective clinical trial. The student has an independent role and makes an intellectual contribution to the project.

Research may be undertaken under a funded program such as INSIGHT (Injury Research Internship Program), MSTAR (Medical Student Training in Aging Research), Developmental Disabilities , and other UWSOM-approved fellowships. Learn about Research Funding Options .

Selective 2 : students undertake a critical review of the literature (also called a Systematic Literature Review), posing an unresolved scientific question relevant to the practice of clinical medicine, and attempting to answer that question from evidence published in the medical literature. A critical review can take other forms as well, such as the analysis of an issue in health policy or biomedical ethics, or an historical investigation.

Students choosing a Selective 1 or 2 will work with a faculty sponsor. A regular or clinical faculty member in any healthcare-related department at any WWAMI university is eligible to be a sponsor.

Sponsor responsibilities include guiding the student throughout the process of her/his research project, including evaluating the plan, supplying a support statement, signing the proposal, and critiquing and approving the final product.

Faculty mentors must be:

Ideally, the faculty mentor will also be:

Feel free to ask your Foundations faculty or your College mentorfor suggestionsof colleagues who may be interested in serving as the sponsor for your III project. You might also want to consult departmental websites and faculty interest databases.

Step Two: Submit Your Proposal

You are required to submit a proposal that outlines the specifics of your research. If you are awarded a grant or fellowship, such as an INBRE or T-32 award, you must still submit a proposal prior to beginning your research.

Submit a completed III proposal for review and approval by the March 31st deadline . Please note that the faculty sponsor section of the proposal requires your sponsor’ssignature. A notification will be sent to you when your proposal has been approved.

Step Three: Conduct Your Research!

For nine weeks over the summer between your first and second years, you will be in research mode. You’ll follow the tasks and methods that you outlined in your proposal. Hopefully, you’ve also structured your time to allow for a couple of weeks of rr at the end of summer before classes begin again!

Step Four: Poster Session, Final Paper, and Faculty Evaluation*

Students who matriculated in autumn 2017 (E-17s) completing a Selective 1 project are required to present a poster at their regional Medical Student Poster Session held in autumn quarter of their second year. Selective 2 students are encouraged, but not required, to present a poster at the Poster Session.

E-17 Selective 2 students must write a final paper and obtain a faculty evaluation . Finalpapers and evaluations aredue in the middle of Marchof the second year. The student must be the sole author of the paper submitted for III credit, even if the student has collaborated with another student or faculty member. Students are free to revise their papers after submitting them if, for example, there are plans to present the paper for publication under joint authorship at a later date. Papers used to fulfill requirements for other courses will not be accepted.

Your sponsor must review and evaluate your final paperand then submit a faculty evaluation. Be sure to send your sponsor your paper withenough time for review before the submission deadline. Final papers and faculty evaluation forms are sent to the Curriculum office .

* N OTE : E-16 students completing either a Selective 1 or a Selective 2 project must write a final paper and obtain a faculty evaluation by March 15, 2018 .

Questions? Please contact Curriculum .

if working with human subjects/vertebrate animals/patient data/tissue samples:

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in which Badri Janakiraman and I discuss how to create maintainable suites of automated acceptance test

Lisa Crispin and Janet Gregory have two great books on agile testing: Agile Testing and More Agile Testing

Elisabeth Hendrickson has written an excellent book on exploratory testing, adidas D Lillard 2 Mens Basketball Shoe Burgundy/Dark Burgundy/White 4G0gQzP
. I recorded an interview with her where we discuss the role of testers, acceptance test driven development, and the impact of continuous delivery on testing. Watch her awesome 30m talk On the Care and Feeding of Feedback Cycles .

Gojko Adzic’s Specification By Example has a series of interviews with successful teams worldwide and is a good distillation of effective patterns for specifying requirements and tests.

Think that “a few minutes” is optimistic for running automated tests? Read Dan Bodart’s blog post Crazy fast build times

Martin Fowler discusses the Test Pyramid and its evil twin, the ice cream cone on his bliki.

Does continuous delivery mean firing all our testers?

No. Testers have a unique perspective on the system—they understand how users interact with it. I recommend having testers pair alongside developers (in person) to help them create and evolve the suites of automated tests. This way, developers get to understand the testers’ perspective, and testers can start to learn test automation. Testers should also be performing exploratory testing continuously as part of their work. Certainly, testers will have to learn new skills—but that is true of anybody working in our industry.

Should we be automating all of our tests?

No. As shown in the quadrant diagram, there are still important manual activities such as exploratory testing and usability testing (although automation can help with these activities, it can’t replace people). We should be aiming to bring all test activities, including security testing, into the development process and performing them continually from the beginning of the software delivery lifecycle for every product and service we build.

Should I stop and automate all of my manual tests right now?

No. Start by writing a couple of automated tests—the ones that validate the most important functionality in the system. Get those running on every commit. Then the rule is to add new tests to cover new functionality that is added, and functionality that is being changed. Over time, you will evolve a comprehensive suite of automated tests. In general, it’s better to have 20 tests that run quickly and are trusted by the team than 2,000 tests that are flaky and constantly failing and which are ignored by the team.

Who is responsible for the automated tests?

Mausoleum (working title)

by Chieftain

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Recorded live at The Palomino, Calgary Alberta on July 20th 2017.
Satan
released July 23, 2017
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Chieftain Calgary, Alberta

Ancient nomads embark in search of rich hunting grounds and abundant pools. Along the forest paths, open planes, unforgiving ... deserts, and the scythes of airless peaks. As the flames of the night camp hypnotize the soul and eyes fixed to the night sky beg what lies beyond the pin pricks of light, songs are writ upon the air. A journey endless, fate unwritten. Young deities awaken in darkness. ... more more

Mausoleum (working title)
Jul 2017
Chieftain
May 2014

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